Artificial intelligence: The inventions of computing machines and the subsequent capability improvement to perform various tasks have grown exponentially. Humans have developed the power of computer systems in terms of their diverse working domains. Their increasing speed, and reducing size with respect to time.
A branch of computer science named artificial intelligence persues creating computers or machines as intelligent as human beings.
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ?
Artifical intelligence is a way of making computer, a computer controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think, learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem and then using the outcomes of this study as a basis of developing intelligent software and systems.
According to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, it is
“THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MAKING INTELLIGENT MACHINES, ESPECIALLY INTELLIGENT COMPUTER PROGRAMS”.
GOALS OF AI :
- To Create Expert System – The system which exhibit intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain and advice its users.
- To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines – Creating systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans.
AI has been dominant in various fields such as
AI place a crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe etc., where machine can think of large number of possible position based on heuristic knowledge.
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
Interact with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans.
Understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example, A spy-plane takes photographs, which are used to figure out maps of the areas. Doctors used clinical expert system to diagnosis the patients. Police use computer software that can identify criminals with stored reports made by forensic artist.
Some intelligent system are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences and their meanings, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s voice due to cold etc.
HAND WRITING RECOGNITION
The handwriting recognition software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and converted into editable text.
Robots are able to perform the task given by humans. They have sensors to deduct physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory to exhibit intelligence. In addition they are capable of learning from their mistakes and they can adapt to new environment.
AI technique is a manner to organize and use the knowledge efficiently in such a way that
- It should be modifiable to correct errors.
- It should be useful in many situations though it is incomplete or inaccurate.
- AI techniques evaluate the speed of execution of the complex program it is equipped with.
- It should be perceivable by the people who provide it.
LIMITATIONS OF AI
- The huge cost involved in its protection and maintenance.
- Unemployment, if robots begin to substitute human beings in every field.
- Over dependence on machine can result in losing their mental and physical capabilities.
- Control of the machines in wrong hands can cause havoc.
- Automation can cause human beings stop using their thinking capabilities.